Weaned piglets affected by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) may experience post-weaning diarrhea, resulting in growth retardation and harm to the piglets’ innate and adaptive immune systems.
These risk factors increase piglet illness and death, resulting in significant economic losses in the global swine industry.
Antibiotics as growth promoters have been used sparingly due to concerns regarding resistant pathogens, residue buildup in animal products, and environmental damage.
For these reasons, the quest for alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, like pro-and prebiotics, organic acids, enzymes, and plant extracts, has gained traction. Plant extract seems to be one of the most frequently acknowledged prospective antibiotic alternatives.
Guava is a tropical fruit and medicinal plant that is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions. Guava leaf extract, used as herbal medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, is said to include phenolics, triterpenoids, and other chemicals with antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.
Pruning is commonly employed to boost growth and impact fruiting in guava. Hence, residual guava leaves from pruned procedures are prospective sources of natural feed additives that could be used as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics.
Recent research has shown that fresh guava leaves have antidiarrheal action in piglets with diverse diarrheas. Many studies have shown that fresh guava leaves can reduce diarrhea and increase intestinal anti-inflammatory capabilities in piglets infected with ETEC.
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If you’re pet obsessed like me, then you probably spend the majority of your day scrolling Instagram for cute pictures of dogs. With each scroll, you imagine how much better life would be with a puppy, and you resolve to make it be so. And yet, as we all know, there are so many things to consider before getting a pet. So let’s put down our phones, log out of PetFinder.com, and review.
After all, this is a big responsibility we’re talking about. Unless you’re daydreaming about the perfect pet goldfish (which still needs care and attention), your entire life will change the moment you bring home a pet. “Pet adoption is certainly a major step — and a long-term one,” says Alison M. Jiménez, director of media and communications at ASPCA, in an email to Bustle. “Most pets can live upwards of 15-20 years (depending on species and health conditions), meaning this pet will be around for a long time.”
Of course that’s a good thing, and yet the huge lifestyle change should make you take pause before adopting a pet. Will you have the time? Do you have the space? These are all questions to ask yourself before marching off to adoption day at your local animal shelter. And below are a few more things to consider to ensure you’re bringing a dog or cat into the best possible situation — for you and them.
1. Why Do You Want A Pet?
First things first, let’s talk about why you want a pet. This deep question might not cross your brain as you stare into the big, shiny eyes of an adorable puppy. But you really should take some time to soul search before adopting one. Are you lonely? Do you crave responsibility? Do you want to save an abandoned animal? Getting a pet is a big commitment, so figuring out why you want to do it is the best place to start.
Sure, maybe a goldfish doesn’t need as much attention as a puppy, but everything obviously requires care. “Dogs, cats and other companion animals cannot be ignored just because you … are too tired or too busy,” noted an article on SSPCA.org. “They require food, water, exercise, care, and companionship every day of the year.” Just something to consider when you are choosing which pet is right for you.
Potbellied pigs may be wonderful, clever, and loving pets. However, they are not suitable as pets for everyone. Without a question, a potbellied pig can be a much-loved addition to a family if properly cared for and trained. Some people, however, are unaware of the demands of keeping pigs as pets and are burdened by their need. Pigs are extremely intelligent and inquisitive, and they can be tough to keep.
Furthermore, because of their voracious appetite, it can be difficult to maintain a healthy diet for a pig. Expect to spend a significant amount of time each day socialising with your pet pig, as well as exercising it through play and outdoor time.
The Potbellied Pig’s Quarters
Since pigs are intelligent and inquisitive, you’ll need to pig-proof any sections of your home where the pig will have access, much as you would baby-proof a home for a child. Secure electrical outlets, keep any steps off-limits, and eliminate tripping hazards like cords and carpets. Pigs are relatively clean creatures, however they may be disruptive if they don’t have enough of their own toys to play with. You may teach your pig to use a litter box or go outdoors to relieve himself. As a reward, provide praise or nutritious treats.
Furthermore, provide your pig with a separate area, such as a large container or a tent. Having that personal space might make a pig feel more at ease. It’s also a good idea to give an indoor rooting box filled with rocks and other natural objects where your pig may use its nose to hunt for little amounts of food you throw in the box. Finally, your pig requires activity to avoid constipation, so regular access to the outdoors for play and walking is essential.
Water and Food
Pig pellets that are low in protein and fat and high in fibre should be included in your pig’s diet. Follow the pellet instructions and consult your veterinarian to determine the proper feeding quantity. Freshly, nonstarchy vegetables should constitute 25% of the pig’s daily diet. You may also give your pet pig alfalfa hay or bran for fibre, and many physicians suggest giving it a multivitamin. Many owners choose to provide two meals each day in a bowl, in the morning and evening, and to distribute portion of the pig’s daily diet in a specified rooting area for nourishment.
Pigs may be relentless in their pursuit of food. They can learn to access the refrigerator, cabinets, and pantry—anywhere they suspect food is hiding. They can also become demanding, begging for food and sometimes becoming violent with others who have food.
Symptoms, treatments and preventative measures for the four most common diseases in pre-weaning, post-weaning and in breeding animals worldwide.
All staff working with the pigs should be able to spot the symptoms of common diseases and alert the manager or veterinarian, as appropriate. Treating pigs quickly with suitable medication is the next step. Prevention is obviously better than cure, and having a herd health plan will help to minimize disease incidence. Information on two common diseases, in each of three stages of production (pre-weaning, growing-finishing, breeding), is provided below.
1. Exudative dermatitis (greasy pig)
The symptoms of this disease are skin lesions, caused by an infection of the bacteria Staphlococcus hyicus. In severe cases, mortality can occur, as the bacteria damage the liver and kidneys. Lesions first present as dark areas of skin, which spread and become flaky with a greasy feel. Antibiotics are used to treat the infection, along with skin protectants; autogenous vaccines have also been used with success. Improving hygiene in piglet housing is key to preventing this condition, along with teat dipping of sows pre- and post-farrowing. It is also important to reduce the potential for skin abrasions, as this is how the infection enters the body. Abrasions are caused by rough floors, jagged teeth, sharp equipment or even mange mites bites.
2. Respiratory diseases
Coughing, sneezing, abdominal breathing, reduced growth rates and potentially mortality are all signs of respiratory disease. Depending on the cause, antibiotics may be given in feed, water or as an injectable. Poor ventilation or environmental conditions can exacerbate respiratory conditions. For example, high levels of ammonia can damage the respiratory tract, making pigs more susceptible to infection. Infective agents include Streptococcus suis and Pasteurella. Vaccines are available for some forms of pneumonia, although the strain affecting a farm should be identified to ensure a successful outcome. Pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, can result in significant mortality, and those that do recover have impaired growth rates and lung damage. Overcrowded and dusty housing are predisposing factors for respiratory disease, along with the presence of PRRS virus.
3. Swine dysentery
Animals with this disease suffer from diarrhea, with or without the presence of blood. It is caused by the bacteria Brachyspira hyodsenteriae. Growth rates of post-weaning pigs are reduced, and, in some cases, sudden death can occur. Antibiotics are used to treat the disease, either in feed, water or as an injectable. Reducing stocking density can be an effective way of reducing infection pressure and stress in the herd. As well as improving hygiene levels, rodent control is a high priority; rodents are a vector for this disease. The strategy for buying and introducing replacement stock should be reviewed, as this a major route of disease introduction.
4. Porcine parvovirus
If pregnant sows become infected with parvovirus (PPV), reproductive disease can occur, but not in all cases. If it does, most commonly in gilts, reproductive performance is significantly affected. Mummification and stillbirths occur, resulting in small litter sizes. Other reproductive diseases have the same symptoms so accurate diagnosis is essential. Unusually, the virus can survive outside the host for several months, making it endemic in most herds. Although it is only during pregnancy that PPV is a problem, other pigs can spread the virus. There are no treatments available; in order to prevent this disease routine vaccination of gilts is advisable.
In terms of disease prevention, re-occurring themes include hygiene, ventilation and reducing stress. Pig producers need to provide an environment that is optimal for the animal and inhospitable for disease-causing agents. As well as reducing infection pressure, immunity must be promoted by measures such as optimal nutrition and good husbandry.
Does it matter if you feed your dog once or twice a day? What about at a certain time?
It’s 6 p.m. and your pup has been giving you side-eye for the past five minutes. He knows it’s time for supper, and he’s giving you a not-so-subtle reminder. No matter what time doggie breakfast or dinner is at your house, feeding your dog at the same time every day provides security and the predictability of a routine. What’s more, a regular feeding schedule helps to house train puppies since they usually have to go outside within 15 minutes of eating. It also provides rescues the stability they may not have had previously. So, what time should your dog eat?
Is There a Best Time to Feed Your Dog?
“While there is no best time, with most dogs that eat twice a day, it is best to feed them in the morning as soon as you get up and then again when you get home from work in the afternoon.,” says Dr. Sara Ochoa, veterinary consultant for doglab.com who practices in Texas. “This gives them time to digest their food and go outside to potty before you have to leave for the day or go to bed.”
Should Your Dog Eat Once or Twice a Day?
Smaller dogs should eat twice a day while larger dogs may be fine eating just once a day. “This is because smaller dogs have a harder time regulating their blood sugar and going a whole day without food can cause their blood sugar to get too low,” says Dr. Ochoa.
But even large dogs would likely prefer to eat twice a day if given the choice. Mealtime is exciting, fun, and something to look forward to that provides structure to their day, even if they do wolf down their kibble in five minutes flat.
Feed dogs who eat twice a day about 10 to 12 hours apart.
What About Dogs Who Free Feed?
You might remember a generation ago, dog owners often put dog food out once in the morning and dogs grazed on it throughout the day. That’s called ad libitum or free feeding.
Dr. Ochoa says, putting food down and leaving it is okay for dogs who won’t overeat. Some dogs would eat every morsel of kibble you give them until they are very sick while others will self-regulate what they eat. “If your dog eats the entire bowl of food as soon as you set it down, it is best to feed them meals each day and not continue to fill their bowl when it is empty,” she says.
The best way to see which is right for your dog is to put a bowl of food out. If they eat it all, fill it right back up. If they continue eating, they cannot be free-fed and need portion-controlled meals once or twice a day. Free feeding tends to cause dogs to become obese which can lead to health issues.
How Do Dogs Know It’s Time to Eat?
If your dog won’t let you forget his feeding time, think of him as your little helper. “My dog lets me know that it is feeding time and she needs to eat,” says Dr. Ochoa. “She will stand and paw at her bowl until it is full.” Researchers think dogs may tell time for things like dinner and walks using their circadian rhythm as an internal body clock or by “smelling time” (the way each part of the day smells helps them identify what should be happening next).
Whatever the reason, creating routine feeding times for your pup builds a happy, healthy bond between you and your dog.
*Always consult with your veterinarian about the best and healthiest routines for your pet.
This is an article from Tractive on effective ways of going about dog adoption.
Adopting a dog from a shelter is a big decision – know what you need to consider and the steps to take to ensure a successful adoption.
So, you think you’re ready to adopt a new furry friend – a dog – into your family! First of all, congratulations on this big decision! But have you actually considered how to adopt a dog exactly? Have you considered all the relevant factors? As a team of dog-lovers, we know how exciting it can be when you’ve decided to adopt a new four-legged companion. And while you don’t need to tame your enthusiasm, you do need to remember to take care of the important planning, research, and steps that are necessary to make your adoption story a success.
So without further ado, here are our tips for success that you should consider when you adopt a dog.
Determine which kind of dog is best for you
Deciding you want to get a dog is a great step to take; but it’s not enough to ensure you are fully prepared for welcoming the dog into your home! While you might have your heart set on a certain dog breed, it’s important to do some research beforehand, to learn about the qualities and traits of that breed and determine if it will really be suitable for you. And there are other factors, like the dog’s background and personality to consider. So before you adopt a dog, you’ll need to form an idea of which kind of canine friend you are looking for.
Below are a few examples of the areas you need to consider when determining the best doggy-fit for you:
Lifestyle & Flexibility: What is your current lifestyle like? What changes are you willing to make to adapt to your new life with a dog? Which changes are you not willing to make?
Loved Ones: How will those around you be impacted by the new addition? Consider small children, older relatives and those with allergies.
Size: Dogs come in all sizes. Would a small, medium, large, or extra-large dog be best for you?
Activity level: Activity level can vary widely between individual dogs and dog breeds. Know how much activity your pup will need before you take the plunge.
Physical Maintenance: Different dogs require different levels of grooming and physical care. How much time are you willing to invest?
There are more factors to consider, such as your budget, previous experience with dogs, openness to special needs dogs, breed, age, sociability, personality, housing etc. So take the required time to research and consider all factors before you begin the adoption process so that you can be well-prepared to find your forever friend.
Visit your local animal shelter
While it may be tempting to visit your local pet store and buy the first puppy you see, it can be more valuable for the animals and your community to adopt a dog from your nearest animal shelter. Dogs found in animal shelters or pet rescue centers have sometimes suffered difficult lives or abandonment from their previous owners. You can do good by rescuing a dog from a shelter, rather than supporting the unethical operation of puppy mills which is often associated with large corporate pet stores.
You can start by looking at the shelter’s website or calling ahead of your visit to inquire about the dogs they currently have up for adoption, the adoption process, etc. Ask them if they have a waiting list which can be added to, in case you are looking for a specific dog breed. Alternatively you could search online for dogs in your preferred breed that may be up for adoption in your area.
Once you’ve planned your visit, it’s time to get to know some potential new furry friends.
Get to know the dog you’re interested in
During your first visit to the shelter or to meet a prospective dog, we recommend to do the following after you have found a dog which you’d like to get to know better:
1) Observe the dog from far away
First, observe their behaviour from a distance. Pay attention to the dog’s actions, mood, body posture, sounds, energy level and sociability with other dogs and humans. From far away, does this dog seem like a good fit for you? Trust your intuition – does the dog give you a warm, positive feeling, or make you feel uneasy? You’ll be spending many years with your new dog, so it’s worth listening to your instincts.
2) Spend some quality time together
Next, take the dog you’re interested in to a separate room—preferably a quiet room with few distractions. Remove the leash, kneel down, and let the dog explore you, without trying to engage with him. Is he curious and confident? Scared or cautious? If the dog you’re assessing has been outgoing and friendly, try to play a bit with him. See if he’ll chase a ball or a soft squeaky toy. If he won’t play with toys, try running away from him and see if he’ll run after you. Does he seem interested in playing with you? Or does he seem nervous – biting and barking?
Simon T. Bailey teaches influencers how to change the world. He is the creator of The Shift System, which shows you how to increase your personal and business results. This is based on his latest book, “Shift Your Brilliance – Harness the Power of You, Inc.”
To stay competitive, businesses today must change and conform to the latest standards on a nearly real-time basis.
This calls for increased focus on developing and establishing the traits of flexibility and adaptability into all levels of the workforce hierarchy. As an emerging leader, the responsibility of cultivating these two traits often falls on your shoulders.
Adaptability and flexibility: A quick refresher
At this point in your career, being offered insight into what adaptability entails might seem superfluous. However, even experienced leaders can overlook important nuances that come with adaptability and need a refresher from time to time.
In the business sense of the word, adaptability entails being open to new ideas and concepts, being able to work on an independent basis or with a team as the situation demands, and juggling multiple projects without getting flummoxed when conditions abruptly change. The ability or degree of willingness to which one adapts in such situations essentially determines one’s level of flexibility — and possibly the heights they will achieve in the future.
With a basic refresher under your belt, let’s move on to building your workforce. Here we’ll take a look at four skills to nurture as you embark on developing your team’s ability to adapt:
1. Think creatively
Your team should be encouraged to explore different avenues for fostering creativity and accomplishing work goals with a new mindset. Those who tend to stick to the same tried-and-true methods are likely to have decreased flexibility and will resist change. Be prepared to give your team a little extra effort.
2. Embrace ambiguity
It is key for companies to encourage an environment where change is embraced, even when ambiguity is involved. Traditionally, companies tend to cut down on innovation when uncertainty is present; instead, it needs to be welcomed. A conscious effort should be made to maintain a positive mindset and to come up with new ways of seeing and doing things.
3. Exercise emotional intelligence
A much-discussed focus of self-management skills courses, particularly those offered in graduate business programs, emotional intelligence means controlling and filtering one’s emotions in a constructive manner. This leads to easier adaptation when working with new teams and developing a better rapport with colleagues.
4. Shift focus
The ability to maintain or shift focus in accordance with an organization’s changing priorities is another critical skill that indicates higher levels of adaptability and flexibility in employees. Those who maintain consistent focus on individual- and team-based operational goals — while using creative and critical thinking processes to solve challenges — are critical in a dynamic environment.
These are some of the top elements for building a workforce that is adaptable and flexible.
As an emerging leader, likely you are aware of them on a subconscious level and employ them personally. However, when you’re ready to nurture these traits at an organizational level, be sure to outline your approach properly and form a quantitative plan to increase change tolerance levels in your company.
Like a workout at the gym, there’s a right way and a wrong way to build flexibility, and a careful plan is always the right way.
Our furry friends are like members of the family—we love them dearly, but the fur they shed when summer rolls around? Not so much. The American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology explains that too much pet dander and hair in the air can aggravate allergies—especially in the areas of the house where pets are allowed*. Now that it’s shedding season, check out these four pet hair solutions for preventing and reducing the pesky particles.
Invest in the proper tools.
Knowing how to tackle pet hair on any surface is key.
Hardwood floors: Vacuuming won’t do much on hardwood floors, blowing the fur around rather than picking it up. Instead, try an electrostatic or microfiber dry mop, which will trap particles.
Carpet: Scrape something with a rough surface—like a pumice stone, or even a tool used for de-shedding your pet—across the top. The hair should gather, making for easy vacuuming or pickup.
Furniture: On a day-to-day basis, keep a throw on couches and chairs to prevent fur from sticking, but when it comes time to remove pet hair from furniture, a little moisture should do the trick. Simply put on a damp rubber glove and run your hand over your couch, bed, chair—whichever fabric-covered surface the dog or cat likes to make his or her home.
Throw it in the dryer.
When the job is too big for the lint roller, try throwing items such as blankets and pillow covers in the dryer with a dryer ball before washing. The fur should come right off and get stuck in the lint trap.
Develop a grooming schedule—and stick to it.
Owning a pet comes with some not-so-fun responsibilities, like grooming. But if you make brushing a daily habit (or, hey, assign the task to the kids!) it will do wonders to prevent hair everywhere. An appointment with a professional groomer every four to six weeks is also a good idea, since he or she can share specific treatments to prevent shedding.
Install the right filter.
Are you keeping up on your filter changes at least every 90 days? When it’s time for a swap, check out Filtrate’s Allergen Defense Air Filter, which is designed to trap particles such as pet dander.
source: American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
When a dog dies it can be an incredibly sad time for owners, and it can be difficult to know what to do. Make sure you’re prepared during this upsetting time with our essential guide.
The death of a beloved pet is an incredibly sad time for owners. Whether your dog dies naturally at home or is put to sleep at the vets, it’s always a stressful and upsetting time.
If your pet has been unwell, or is very old and naturally approaching the end of their life, you may already have plans in place for their eventual passing. However, even the best-laid plans can be disrupted by external factors or by grief. If you’re struggling with your pet’s death in the immediate aftermath, always ask for help from a friend, family member or veterinary professional.
What often adds to the trauma of a pet’s death is the uncertainty of how to handle their remains. Take some of the stress out of this period with this comprehensive guide on what to do when your dog dies.
What happens when a dog dies naturally?
We usually associate the death of pets with them being put to sleep at a veterinary surgery. But what happens when a dog dies naturally at home?
If your pet dies at home, it may be difficult to handle their remains. You may wish to call your vet or another professional service, such as a company that can assist with dead dog disposal. Remember that such services may not be available on weekends or during national holidays.
When a dog dies, their body may still show signs of what can look like life, such as the following:
Twitching, as a result of natural nerve spasms after death
The release of air from the mouth when moved
The release of bodily fluids and gas
These can all be quite upsetting for owners to witness, especially if they aren’t expecting them. They aren’t, sadly, signs that your pet is coming back to life. They are simply the natural bodily functions and what happens when a dog dies naturally.
What to do when your dog dies
When handling remains, always wear gloves and thoroughly clean any area that has been touched by the animal, as well as thoroughly cleaning any fluids that may have been spilt. It’s important to limit the spread of germs in the immediate aftermath.
You may wish to leave your pet at home for a few hours before organising a dead dog disposal; in which case, ensure that the body is left in a cool room, for no longer than 24 hours. Be aware that rigor mortis—the stiffening of joints after death—will begin to set in after around three to four hours.
Your local vet will be well placed to deal with dead dog disposal, and if you wish for it to be handled by them simply place a call as soon as possible. Your vet should then be able to organise the collection and subsequent burial or cremation, according to your preference.
If you wish for your dog to be cremated, it is possible to organise this yourself rather than going through a vet. Dog cremation is more costly than home burial, but gives owners a variety of options when it comes to memorialising their pet’s remains.
Crematoriums will return a dog’s ashes to their owner and these can be stored or scattered according to personal preference. Many owners choose to keep dog ashes in an urn or even store them in keepsake items, such as a piece of jewellery. Owners also often scatter their pet’s ashes in some of their favourite places or walks.
Remember that there are various options when it comes to cremation, including communal or private cremation. If you’re planning to use your pet’s ashes for a specific memorial, do bare in mind that although crematoriums do make an effort to keep ashes separate during communal cremations, this cannot be guaranteed.
How much does it cost to cremate a dog?
The cost of dog cremation varies between different crematoriums and the options that they offer. These options depend on a variety of factors, such as the size of dog and whether a communal or private cremation is preferred. So, how much does it cost to cremate a dog? Overall costs will generally run to over £100.
Some owners choose to bury their dog at home. This option reduces the cost of dead dog disposal by avoiding expensive cremation costs and gives a final resting place to beloved pets, at home. If you’re thinking about home burial, it’s important to consider local laws. In the UK, it is legal to bury pets in a garden that you own. It isn’t legal to bury animals in the gardens of rented accommodation, any property that you don’t own, or in public places. If you choose to bury your dog, check with your vet that their remains are not hazardous to human health before proceeding and choose a place away from water sources.
When burying a dog at home, ensure that their grave is no less than three feet deep, to ensure that their remains stay covered. You may also wish to mark the burial site with a covering of stone, or even a potted plant.
There are some pet cemeteries and crematoriums around the UK that will provide burial services for dogs. This is generally a more expensive option than dog cremation, the final price being dependent on weight. Cemeteries may also require that remains be buried in a coffin or other container, which further adds to the overall cost.
Pet cemeteries will offer individual plots for dog burial and you may also erect a headstone or other memorial marker over the gravesite.
Grieving a pet
What to do when your dog dies is just the beginning of a process that can be very difficult for pet owners. For many, the passing of a beloved pet is similar to the death of a friend or family member and you should always seek support if needed.
Grieving a pet is always difficult, but there are many support groups and organisations to reach out to during this time.